Scientists at the University of Sydney in Australia have found that red dwarfs produce powerful explosions that are deadly to living creatures. This is reported in the article.
The findings point to the likely lifelessness of two planets in orbit around Proxima Centauri, which is 4.2 light-years away from the Sun. Because the red stars (or M dwarfs) to which Proxima Centauri belongs are colder than the Sun, the planets must be close enough to the Sun for liquid water to exist on them. However, this location of the habitable zone makes the planet vulnerable to stellar flares and coronal mass ejections.
Coronal mass ejections produce extremely powerful emissions of ionized plasma and radiation. M dwarfs, meanwhile, are the most common type of star in galaxies.
Researchers have been able to link the observed optical flare on Proxima Centauri to a recorded radio burst, the characteristics of which indicate extremely strong X-ray and ultraviolet radiation. The atmospheres of exoplanets can undergo intense erosion and eventually disappear.