From 2064, the number of people will begin to decline – and this process may be irreversible. One of the authors of the corresponding scientific work directly indicates: if nothing changes, in a few centuries humanity will die out. However, there are worse things than extinction. A different scenario is much more likely: the world will be populated by those who can reproduce in new cultural conditions. Unfortunately, a significant part of modern Europeans, Americans and, possibly, other peoples will be ousted from the first pages of history. In addition, those who will win this difficult struggle, we, today’s population of the Earth, may not like much. Let’s try to figure out why.