he experimental drug demonstrated 90% efficiency on animals.
In the USA the experimental vaccine against cancer has passed to the first phase of the preparation’s testing on humans. This is reported by New Atlas.
Previous trials of the vaccine on animals have shown encouraging efficacy and safety. The new vaccine, combined with a second immunotherapeutic agent, has shown 90% efficacy on animals.
The vaccine was developed on the basis of inhibitors of immune response control points. This treatment method is aimed at blocking the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to avoid attacks by immune cells.
One such mechanism, which uses cancer cells, includes PD-1, a protein of the immune response control point, expressed on the surface of immune cells that kill cancer. PD-1 binds to PD-L1, another protein of the control point, which is found on both healthy and certain cancer cells. This process essentially tells the immune cells that there are no suitable targets and they can move on.
PD-1 inhibitors are a relatively new class of drugs that allow immune cells to more effectively detect and kill cancer cells. Several monoclonal antibodies (antibodies developed in the laboratory) against PD-1 have been approved for treatment of different types of cancer in recent years. But the new therapy, called PD1-Vaxx, is designed to trigger a larger antibody response, and scientists hope it will be more effective.
The study was conducted by scientists at Ohio State University. Author Pravin Kaumaya says there are two important steps in the work of the new vaccine.
“First, PD1-Vaxx activates the functions of B- and T cells, helping to cleanse the tumor. Secondly, the treatment aims to block the signaling pathways, which are crucial for tumor growth and development. And with the help of an immunotherapeutic drug, we overcharge and direct the immune system to destroy cancer cells,” Kaumaya says.
The researchers report that this combined approach was tested on an animal model of colorectal cancer. The therapy was effective for 9 out of 10 animals. Previous clinical trials have also confirmed vaccine safety.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already granted PD1-Vaxx permission to move to Phase I of the human trials in the US. Scientists have also received similar approvals for trials in Australia. The upcoming trials will focus on patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
“We are excited to start testing this vaccine in the United States to give new hope to patients with lung cancer and other cancers,” the scientist said.
Earlier we wrote that we found strong protection against viruses in cancers. Scientists have also found similarities between coronavirus structure and cancer.
It was reported that the scientists found the mechanisms responsible for cancer emergence.